Doms № 2 -2024

Особливості харчування пацієнтів
з метаболічним синдромом в аспекті лікування та профілактики

Хацько В. Е., Михайленко В. Л., Данильчук Г. О.,

Корнован Г. В., Лагода Д. О.

https://doi.org/10.57105/2415-7252-2024-2-02

 

Резюме

Особливості метаболічного синдрому (МС) полягають в пов’язаному з ним ризику серцево-судинних захворювань і цукрового діабету 2-го типу, а також інших шкідливих станів, таких як неалкогольна жирова хвороба печінки тощо. У даній статті надані наявні наукові докази зв’язку між змінами способу життя та МС та його компонентами, щоб отримати рекомендації щодо профілактики та лікування МС. Зниження маси тіла (МТ) за рахунок дієт з обмеженим споживанням калорій разом із збільшенням витрат енергії через фізичну активність доведено сприяє профілактиці та лікуванню МС. Середземноморська дієта з або без обмеження калорій є ефективним компонентом лікування за рахунок збільшеного споживання ненасичених жирів, насамперед з оливкової олії, та акценту на споживанні бобових, цільнозернових круп, фруктів, овочів, горіхів, риби та нежирних молочних продуктів, а також помірного вживання алкоголю. Інші схеми харчування (DASH, скандинавська та вегетаріанська дієти) також запропоновані як альтернатива для лікування та профілактики МС. Обов’язковою умовою успішного лікування є відмова від паління та зменшення споживання підсолоджених напоїв. Не у всіх пацієнтів дані підходи є дієвими, тому необхідні додаткові дослідження, щоб визначити найбільш прийнятну терапію МС. Здоровий спосіб життя має вирішальне значення для запобігання або відстрочення початку МС у сприйнятливих осіб та запобігання серцево-судинним захворюванням і цукрового діабету 2-го типу в тих, хто вже має МС. Рекомендації, надані в цій статті, повинні допомогти пацієнтам та лікарям зрозуміти та застосувати найефективніші підходи до зміни способу життя, щоб запобігти МС та покращити кардіометаболічний стан.

Ключові слова: метаболічний синдром, харчування, дієта, DASH-дієта, макронутрієнти, мікронутрієнти.

 

Peculiarities of nutrition of patients with metabolic syndrome in the aspect of treatment and prevention
Khatsko VE, Mykhaylenko VL, Danylchuk HO, Kornovan HV, Lahoda DO

Odesa National Medical University

Abstract

The hallmark of metabolic syndrome (MS) is the associated risks of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as other harmful conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, etc. In this article, we would like to highlight the available scientific evidence on the relationship between lifestyle changes and MS and its components in order to obtain recommendations for the prevention and treatment of MS. Body weight (BW) reduction through calorie-restricted diets, along with increased energy expenditure through physical activity, has been shown to aid in the prevention and treatment of MS. A Mediterranean diet with or without calorie restriction is an effective component of treatment. Due to the increased consumption of unsaturated fats, primarily from olive oil, and to emphasize the consumption of legumes, cereals (whole grains), fruits, vegetables, nuts, fish and low- fat dairy products, as well as moderate alcohol consumption. Other dietary patterns (DASH, Scandinavian and vegetarian diets) have also been suggested as alternatives for the treatment and prevention of MS. A mandatory condition is to stop smoking and reduce the consumption of sweetened beverages. These approaches are not effective in all patients, and more research is needed to determine the most appropriate therapy for MS. In summary, a healthy lifestyle is critical for preventing or delaying the onset of MS in susceptible individuals and preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in those who already have MS. The recommendations provided in this article should help patients and physicians understand and implement the most effective lifestyle modification approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome and improve cardiometabolic status.

Key words: metabolic syndrome, nutrition, diet, DASH-diet, macro- and micronutrients

 

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