Switching from neutral protamine hagedorn insulin to insulin glargine 300 u/ml improves glycaemic control and reduces hypoglycaemia risk: results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study
Wolnik, D. Wiza, T. Szczepanik, A. Syta, T. Klupa
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is an important public health issue. A significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with T2DM do not reach target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values, which ultimately increases their risk of long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications. One potential option to improve diabetes control in these patients may be the use of new insulin formulations including second-generation basal insulin analogues such as insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300). Several published randomised controlled trials have assessed the clinical effectiveness of Gla-300, mostly versus insulin glargine 100 U/mL as well as insulin degludec. However, there is limited information about the real-world effectiveness of Gla-300 when patients are transitioned directly from neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) human basal insulin. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Gla-300, defined as the percentage of participants with an HbA1c reduction of ≥0.5%, 6 months after switching from NPH insulin, in participants with T2DM. Secondary objectives included the safety assessment based on the percentage of patients experiencing ≥1 episodes and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes by category: severe, symptomatic, symptomatic confirmed, diurnal or nocturnal, change in body weight, and insulin dose. A total of 469 participants completed the 6-month observation period. Mean baseline HbA1c was 9.19%. The percentage of participants with a ≥0.5% improvement in HbA1c from baseline was 71.7% at 6 months. Mean HbA1c decreased at 3 and 6 months by 0.77% (±0.98) and 1.01% (±1.12), respectively (p < 0.00001 versus baseline), while fasting glycaemia decreased by 32 mg/dL and 37 mg/dL, respectively (p < 0.00001 versus baseline). There were moderate increases in the doses of both Gla-300 and, if used, short-acting insulins during the 6 months of observation. The percentage of participants with ≥1 hypoglycaemia event during the preceding 4 weeks decreased significantly from baseline to 3 and 6 months, as did the proportion with symptomatic hypoglycaemia at night (p < 0.00001 versus baseline). No participants had severe hypoglycaemia after a switch to Gla-300. Body mass, waist and hip circumferences, and waist:hip ratio did not change significantly. In conclusion, this large, prospective, observational study demonstrated that switching from NPH insulin to Gla-300 resulted in a significant improvement in HbA1c, with only a moderate increase in insulin dose, a decreased risk of hypoglycaemia, and no increase in body weight.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 2 doiabetus mellitus, hypoglycaeia, complications, basal insulin analogues