The management of type 2 diabetes before, during and after Covid Empagliflozin inhibits macrophage inflammation through AMPK signaling pathway and plays an anti-atherosclerosis role-19 infection: what is the evidence?
Jie Fu, Hualin Xu, Fuyun Wu, Qiang Tu, Xiao Dong, Huaqiang Xie, Zheng Cao
Key words: Atherosclerotic, Empagliflozin, p-AMPK, Macrophage, Inflammation.
In recent years, some authoritative clinical studies have found that SGLT2 inhibitorcan reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, which may imply that SGLT2 inhibitor can play a role beyond lowering blood glucose. In this study, we explored the effect of empagliflozin on vascular atherosclerosis after removing the effect of diabetes.
The interaction between SGLT2 inhibitor and the AMPK(Adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase) signal pathway to attenuate atherosclerosis was studied in both spontaneously atherosclerotic mice in vivo and oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) induced macrophage inflammation model in vitro. In vivo experiment the aorta tree and aortic valve area were stained with oil red, and the level of inflammatory factors in the diseased tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, serum was collected to detect the levels of inflammatory factors. In vitro experiment, the RAW264.7 cell line was selected and ox-LDL was used to induce the release of proinflammatory factors, and different doses of empagliflozin were added. The phagocytosis of macrophages to ox-LDL density lipoprotein, and the expression of inflammatory factors at the protein and RNA levels were measured.
Empagliflozin reduced the area of atherosclerotic plaque and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques, decreased the expression of inflammatory factors in local plaque tissues and serum of APOE−/− mice fed with high-fat diet. Empagliflozin can improve the protein expression level of p-AMPK affected by ox-LDL in cell and reduce the gene expression level of inflammatory factors and protein expression level of NF-κB, thus playing an anti-atherosclerosis role.
Empagliflozin improves energy metabolism and reduces the expression of inflammatory factors by activating AMPK. As empagliflozin inhibits atherosclerosis progression, it may be of use in prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
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